Alternate title: Blockchain-integrated technologiesGohil, Dhruman; Thakker, Shivangi Viral. Modern Supply Chain Research and Applications; Bingley Vol. 3, Iss. 2, (2021): 78-97.DOI:10.1108/MSCRA-10-2020-0028

1. Introduction

The supply chain includes all the activity that involves production of goods và delivering finished goods from procurement stage to product stage. The supply chain in all industries contains very complex architecture và framework. All industries need khổng lồ improve their supply chain to lớn enhance productivity và gain more profits in business.

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Maintaining a good supply chain has its challenges and barriers lượt thích trust among stakeholders, transparency and efficiency at each cấp độ of the supply chain. Blockchain has the potential lớn enhance flexibility & agility in supply chain operations (Cole et al., 2019). Blockchain allows all the stakeholder involved in the ecosystem khổng lồ participate, share and validate upon all pieces of information & data. Blockchain can be presented append-only transactional data store, for centralized brokers that are handled by single trusted authorities (Viriyasitavat et al., 2019).

This paper examines challenges of conventional supply chain & classifies them according lớn a suitable technical solution. Application & implementation of modern technologies such as blockchain, artificial (AI) & Internet of Things (IOT) has many advantages for resolving difficulties. The paper presents theoretical work for finding supply chain challenges & coming up with possible solutions by implementing blockchain giải pháp công nghệ architecture và its integration with other recently developed technologies. The research considers all levels of supply chain, starting from raw materials of the sản phẩm to the hàng hóa lifecycle until it reaches the consumer. Some objectives of the research are as follows:

Identifying challenges of traditional supply chain.

Classifying the problems and determining the technology.

Study the integration of blockchain with the giải pháp công nghệ to understand how it can be used lớn make the supply chain operations more efficient và agile.

Development of integrated architecture implementing blockchain and other modern technologies individually to lớn make complete process more transparent.

In this paper ahead, integration of blockchain and other integration of technology lượt thích IOT và AI with blockchain is discussed with a process flowchart. Some of the challenges of all supply chain members are carried out, & their solution is given through blockchain and integration of modern technologies, followed by a discussion & conclusion.

2. Literature survey

Walmart Canada has started with the implementation of blockchain technology with the logistics firms for inventory transportation. A shared node of a blockchain server allows to lớn synchronize track shipments, logistics data và automate payments without requiring changes to lớn the logistics firms’ operations or information giải pháp công nghệ systems (Banerjee, 2015).

Maersk & IBM employ blockchain giải pháp công nghệ to digitize trade workflow and operations, create a global tamper-proof system và track shipments/deliveries end-to-end, including expensive point-to-point communications. Through blockchains, companies gain a real-time digital ledger of transactions và movements for all participants in their supply chain network.

IBM & Samsung took a step by IOT devices that consume electricity into blockchain-based energy management (Viriyasitavat et al., 2019). If all members of the supply chain use blockchain công nghệ properly, it can be proved very profitable và stable to increase the security and transparency of supply chain.

2.1 Blockchain technology

Blockchain technology synchronizes transactions, contracts & data across all nodes and network, và each stakeholder validates transaction & verifies it (Abeyratne and Monfared, 2016). Blockchain is a distributed ledger that is visible & accessible to lớn everyone include in the network. Blockchain công nghệ is a chain of blocks, and every block contains thousands of verified transactions. Due to lớn many blocks connected in one string, it becomes tough for someone lớn tamper the data. Blockchain giải pháp công nghệ allows creating a portable identity. Many companies are heading their operations toward efficient digital supply chain (DSC) under required standards, solutions for integrating business processes with all the supply chain members in their network.

Blockchain gives us the technological capability of creating a record of human exchange, currency exchange and all kinds of physical assets. All types of assets can be stored, moved, transacted và managed connected khổng lồ a distributed ledger connected lớn millions of computers. The distribution process of a blockchain system relies on consensus protocol, allowing mutually untrusted, uncoordinated parties khổng lồ agree on transactions and blocks on blockchain server (Zheng et al., 2018).

All the supply chain members in industries are linked to the blockchain through a matrix of nodes. All the transactions and data of members in a chain are stored và managed at the same place (Vanpoucke et al., 2009). All members và stakeholders of the chain can easily interact with each other and get the trusted và correct data of all the transactions. Complete decentralization of all the members in the chain can be formed. It forces many potential users to re-engineer and streamline their systems, clean up their data, upgrade their databases và work across their network khổng lồ create solutions for the common good. In the area of supply chains, once CPS (cyber-physical systems) autonomously decide to lớn order for material usage & tracking information, replacement from suppliers can be stored in blockchain ledger, allowing resilient và accurate tracking information và preventing counterfeit products (Viriyasitavat et al., 2019).

2.1.1 Rationale

The major purpose of blockchain công nghệ for supply chain is tracking all transactions of products & entire hàng hóa life cycle. The tracking of processes and items from raw materials through suppliers khổng lồ the customers with data, manufacturing, locations, etc. Gives better transparency, increasing the efficiency và control on operations. There is strong need of converting traditional supply chain into digital supply chain khổng lồ remove slow and manual processes, strengthening traceability and reducing IT transaction costs. All the medium-sized organization have enterprise resource planning (ERP) system as their management và planning system, but ERP can be used in internal organization; blockchain can help khổng lồ connect all the organization of supply chain network on single server và connects all responsible members, stakeholders (Kim and Laskowski, 2018). Blockchain in supply chain allows all supply chain members to verify the requested data and then upload on the blockchain server so that data is not tampered by anyone. This helps all members lớn get trust over systems. Integration of modern disruptive technologies helps supply chain to achieve real-time insights of operations and provides secured way of mining, storing và analyzing data.

2.1.2 Advantages of blockchain in supply chain

All the stages in the supply chain use ERP software khổng lồ store and manage day-to-day business activities such as handling employees, accounting, production, compliance, etc. Individually. Blockchain công nghệ helps to connect all the organizations in supply chain network and increase efficiency & traceability of the overall process (Stevenson và Spring, 2007). Blockchain và integration of other giải pháp công nghệ with blockchain enhance the product lifecycle management. It gives real-time feedback to lớn the consumers & the other organization included in the supply chain. It can revolutionize the digital world by enabling a distributed consensus, where every online transaction involving digital assets, past và present, can be verified at any time in the future (Shireesh & Petrovsky, 2016). It does this without settlement of security privacy of the digital assets và contracts involved (Li et al., 2020). Whenever a transaction is processed between any of the parties in the supply chain, all the members get the real-time tracking of the operations và then validate it. Once validated, they get added to lớn the public ledger of blockchain server, which cannot be tampered and hacked easily. The stakeholders & investors involved in the supply chain organizations can track the complete process, including finance, legal, operations, demand and supply forecasting and logistics providers (see Table 1).

The implications of blockchain công nghệ in supply chain operations is not only limited lớn manufacturing companies but also in healthcare, retail, banks, fintech start-ups, truyền thông and entertainment, agriculture, law and most crucial government sectors. Blockchain"s other functions that are used khổng lồ make the supply chain operations more agile are inventory management, demand forecasting, asset tracking and property storage (Nawari và Ravindran, 2019). Real estate is the other example in which a large number of organizations or suppliers are involved. It becomes tough for the constructions companies lớn track the complete process & product lifecycle by all the suppliers & distributors. Blockchain and its integration with other technology can be proved very helpful in the real estate industry to khung a complete decentralization (Wang et al., 2017).

2.1.3 Blockchain technologies & supply chain uncertainties

As the supply chain includes many stakeholders và organizations, it becomes difficult khổng lồ make decisions. Because of the complex structure of the supply chain, there exist many uncertainties that need to be resolved lớn prevent damage in operations. Fuzzy xúc tích can be used khổng lồ measure the supply chain performance and reduce the uncertainties that exist in the supply chain. Fuzzy ngắn gọn xúc tích helps to lớn get a deeper insight into process performance, operations from the input and output aspects than traditional accounting and measuring methods. Xu and Viriyasitavat (2019) have proposed a supply chain performance measurement system using AHP và fuzzy logic which was applied lớn integrate both qualitative & quantitative metrics lớn provide a complete view of the supply chain management & its overall competitiveness.

Some applications of fuzzy xúc tích và ngắn gọn that can be applied in the supply chain involved route planning for logistics, equipment maintenance for manufacturers, the efficiency of automatic machines, quantitative pattern analysis for industrial unique assurance, funds management for financial teams và automation of processes/operations for warehousing firms/distributors. It has numerous applications when they are integrated with IOT & blockchain. In any particular supply chain, storage và visibility of data lớn all the stakeholders helps all members involved lớn take accurate decisions on a real-time basis, automating systems through sensors, cloud and are measurable. Fuzzy và other analysis methods such as grey system theory can be applied in every process that is measurable & helps lớn make sensible & predictive decisions.

3. Supply chain operations challenges

Supply chain operations include the execution plan of all the processes và connectivity of all the systems (Banerjee, 2015). All companies need khổng lồ improve their supply chain operations to lớn increase their financial and operational performance. The involvement of a large number of stakeholders in the supply chain increases the operational challenges and reduces the one-to-one interaction among different members. There are some challenges in the supply chain because of its complex structure (see Table 2):

In Figure 1, implementation path of blockchain giải pháp công nghệ in supply chain can be seen. There are four layers in blockchain server such as ledger layer, smart contract layer, transaction layer & data input đầu vào layer for data acquisition, data processing, data verification và data storage. All member/stakeholders involved in supply chain are nodes through which they are connected to a blockchain server.

4. Blockchain & smart contracts

A smart contract can verify its correctness, imposed instructions and predefined rules. The smart contracts are self-executing, immutable & distributed. Smart contracts can be programmed with a language named solidity. Smart contracts is storing of contracts which is similar to lớn storing of transactions on blockchain (Rane và Thakker, 2019). Smart contract is the nontampering computer program that is stored inside a blockchain server. They are completed immutable & distributed. Once the smart contract is created & stored on blockchain server, it becomes challenging lớn tamper with the contract"s code. Everyone on the network validates the output. The feature of blockchain smart contracts gives the ability khổng lồ program the blockchain khổng lồ govern transactions among participants involved in decision-making or generating and accessing the data (Banerjee et al., 2018).

Smart contracts can self-manage & self-execute payments. They can build function libraries and are good at authenticating. Trust of process executions can be achieved by encoding business operations into smart contracts that impose the correct performance among untrusted parties, và trust of IOT information is derived from the agreement of business partners that mutually select IOT services for each task execution in a business process (Xu và Viriyasitavat, 2019). Smart contracts can compute business ngắn gọn xúc tích and understand upto the bộ vi xử lý core they facilitate three functions:

Store rules

Validate rules

Self-execute rules

Blockchain công nghệ can be used by integrating delivery platforms and payment systems in digital contracts that runs across organizations, integration with logistics providers & other supply chain members. The main feature of blockchain in a smart contract is “trustless” transactions. Smart contract handles enforcement, management, performance & payment. The smart contract is an agreement between two people on the digital network. Smart contract on blockchain reduces time và cost delays of handling & forming the contract manually. The possible cases of smart contracts are pre-contracted budgets and deals to automated access systems & extending from e-commerce lớn autonomous machine transactions (Sulkowski, 2019). Ujo Music is a decentralized music platform that allows the artists to record a piece of music on a blockchain-based smart contract that shows the amount of mô tả of each stakeholder in the project. Smart contracts và blockchain will revolutionize many industries & businesses to lớn enable electronic transactions without any human intervention (Stefansson, 2002). Smart contract gives the registry of every part of the product on the ledger. It shows the ownership certificate of all the products or components that helps khổng lồ gain trust among all the supply chain members. Supply chain contains cupplier, manufacturer, distributor, retailer và consumer cycle. There are many stakeholders involved in the complete process. Once the retailer or the manufacturer receives a product, they can check the originality of every component of the product. The supplier might sometime bởi fraud và send the duplicate part to lớn a manufacturer that decreases chất lượng of the product & also the life of product. If the consumer gets a complaint about the product, the retailer can directly check which supplier has done the fraud & directly report lớn him due to smart contracts. All the investment contracts of an organization such as term sheet, funding agreements, partnership documents, manufacturer documents và organization collaboration documents can be directly stored on blockchain hệ thống in the khung of smart contracts. Such important documents are encrypted và available lớn other stakeholders through blockchain in a secured way. Traditional method of handling và maintaining all types of contracts physically can be easily solved through integration of blockchain and smart contract (Reyna et al., 2018). Digital & self-executing smart contracts helps organization for their cost cutting in legal team. Some organization can save their employee salary that is responsible for renew & verification of legal contracts, tax audits and compliances alert. Blockchain & smart contract if used properly can help companies khổng lồ save their legal fines, deductions for late payment of taxes & reduce counterfeiting & frauds.

The applications of blockchain and smart contracts in supply chain are:

Store employee and land contracts

Store stakeholder & investments contracts

Ownership và registry of all assets or products

Peer-to-peer transactions

In Figure 2, all supply chain members are connected on a common blockchain hệ thống where all the smart contracts can be saved. Supply chain members/stakeholders can access lớn all smart contracts and verify updating of contracts through di động application and consumers can get the access through bar code. There are bar codes on all manufactured products so that anyone can get the access of ownership, verification details and proof of origin. All the đơn hàng and contracts involved in the companies are stored on server và are encrypted so that all allowed members và organization can access all contracts on real-time.

5. Technologies for integration with blockchain

The technologies that can be integrated with blockchain technology to turn supply chain operations more flexible and agile are IOT và AI. Both the technologies are separately used in industries & not many organizations have incorporated blockchain along with these technologies. Following sub-sections discus integration of IOT and AI with blockchain network and information flow for the same.

5.1 Blockchain and IOT

IOT refers to the IOT that takes data from the server and stores on the Internet, which can be examined by the admin anytime và anywhere (Alaba et al., 2017). The digital supply chain (DSC) is the best example representing the integration of blockchain and IOT. The DSC requires the dynamic collaboration of partners by integrating or exchanging specific data across various organizations and systems (Viriyasitavat et al., 2019). At each step và every process location of packages, containers and products can be tracked through IOT system integrated with RFID tags, GPS tag, sensors, bar code và chips. This allows an enhanced, real-time tracking of goods from their origins. Blockchain has genuine potential to lớn gain data security & trust for automation and development in IOT (Xu & Viriyasitavat, 2019). IOT works in the supply chain through these four necessary steps:

Sensors & actuators

Internet gateways

Edge IT analytics

Data center management

The sensors are connected khổng lồ machinery lớn automate some processes and gain real-time data. Those sensors are connected to mạng internet gateways of that particular area. The internet gateways take real-time data through sensors that are stored in the database. Decision analytics is done with that data for the decision-making process (Novo, 2018). As it is real-time data, it helps khổng lồ make right and genuine decisions for the further process. The real-time data through Internet-based medium increase efficiency & productivity of the supply chain. Integration of blockchain and IOT increases the trust among all the stakeholders và members involved in the complete supply chain because they get access khổng lồ the real-time data. Everyone in the chain can track the stage of the product & assume the delivery time. This integration helps in the inventory management, demand forecasting, financial & operational management of all the individual organizations involved in the chain. Asset tracking is the most crucial feature of blockchain-IOT in supply chain. All the logistics providers" activities can be tracked entirely with the help of IOT, and it is accessible lớn all the members of the chain with the help of a decentralized blockchain vps (Pureswaran, 2015). This access of logistics provider helps all the members of the string lớn manage their operations efficiently (Hackius và Petersen, 2017). The distributor has the most advantage of blockchain-IOT integration as he can track all the goods in the large warehouse through RFID tags (Angeles, 2009). It helps to lớn increase the trust of all the members that all the rights are safe in the warehouse. Feedback of products shared by customers by using smartphones can directly be transferred khổng lồ the manufacturer, which allows companies to lớn given efficient customer services. These IOT characteristics bring about a trust concern for the utilization of IOT services in modern business processes (Xu và Viriyasitavat, 2019). The integration of blockchain & IOT also helps lớn solve problems related to lớn fragmented data sources. Blockchain công nghệ provides strong security to lớn IOT data & devices and predictive analysis & legal contracts as they are vulnerable by 51% of attack on connected servers (Alphand et al., 2018). Blockchain-IOT integration in supply chain helps supply chain members to reduce their employees responsible for traditional supply chain management and save their large amount of revenue. Manufacturers can reduce staff of quality assurance & maintenance team as that task can be efficiently done by sensors on the machinery, & real-time data are uploaded through IOT on blockchain server. The allotted supervisor can keep track of all the production through server and change the required setting as per reports & data on blockchain server. It is very important for any organization to lớn make a good kpi hiệu quả chiến dịch (key performance indicator) to increase efficiency of processes; blockchain-IOT can help companies to lớn boost their hiệu quả chiến lược system on real-time basis which is visible lớn all stakeholders.

RFID & barcodes are how the products or goods are tracked, và they help manage the inventory efficiently (Kim & Garrison, 2010). RFID tag passes the data khổng lồ the RFID reader, which is connected khổng lồ the Internet. Transportation products are fitted with the tracking device, which provides real-time information of goods along the supply chain. From manufacturing equipment, maintenance, production efficiency & shipping notices through logistics service provider and RFID scanning, everything is tracked on computerized systems (Fan et al., 2015). The integration of blockchain và IOT helps to lớn improve the existing traditional supply chain operations and transform it into a new supply chain to lớn increase operations efficiency & productivity (Xu & Viriyasitavat, 2019). Identifying sản phẩm damage with the help of sensors và ML (machine learning) is a critical application. The data are uploaded on the blockchain server, and the supervisor responsible for that task can vày the required settings. The uses of blockchain và IOT in supply chain are:

Real-time data of product to all the stakeholders

Tracking of stages of product

Better visibility into procurement.

Reliable data analytics for decision-making

Improvement in operational & financial performance of all members in the chain

Identifying hàng hóa damage

In manufacturing supply chain, blockchain and IOT integration can be the new revolution because of its numerous advantages such as real-time data, efficient operations, secured storage of data on real-time basis, etc. (Kehoe and Boughton, 2001). The major operations in which blockchain & IOT integration can help are: production planning và control, supply chain real-time data of raw material, equipment, machinery maintenance, unique assurance, inventory management of manufactured goods, etc. (Fang et al., 2016). Efficient resource utilization can be done with the help of this integration due to real-time data regularly.

In Figure 3, blockchain và IOT integration roadmap và benefits in supply chain is displayed. Sensors and other data sources are connected to all members individually và uploaded on mạng internet gateways and associated cloud platforms. After processing data, data management & storage systems help organizations in data segmentation through data analysis and create proper business reports (Haddud et al., 2017). Such reports are very accurate và help organization khổng lồ increase their revenue, create new business models & work on development in required field. All real-time reports are uploaded on the blockchain hệ thống that is visible & accessible to other members/stakeholders which helps them in planning và strategizing their operations.

5.2 Blockchain and AI (artificial

AI is used to lớn create computers and machines that act lượt thích humans. AI algorithms are developed to make calculated and real-time data-analyzed decisions. John Mc
Carthy explained term, “Artificial” as a way to lớn get the machine doing things that is usually performed by human (Shubhendu và Vijay, 2013). Both AI & blockchain công nghệ can help the supply chain increase the security of data storage, double the efficiency of data and make smart decisions (Banerjee et al., 2018). Blockchain stores a large amount of data securely, và AI creates newer scenarios và discovers patterns based on data behavior.

As supply chain includes many stakeholders và managers, there is large amount of data processed on the blockchain network (Chen, 2018). The integration of blockchain và AI in the supply chain helps analyze a large amount of data and make better decisions. Decisions taken by AI can be more accurate than individual choices because of the large amount of data. Solutions are being developed by the researchers in specific industries that could revolutionize way of storing data, its analysis and especially for the supply chain và manufacturing industry. IBM has entered the AI-blockchain-based management with supply chain suite. To lớn date, the majority of deep learning methods and machine learning of AI depend on centralized mã sản phẩm for training in which a group of servers run a specific mã sản phẩm against training và validating datasets (Salah et al., 2019). With access lớn an identical view of a shared, trusted and secured platform of transactions, data, analytics và documents helps in supply chain khổng lồ take calculated decisions in all parts of operations. Integration of AI and blockchain helps lớn enhance data security, which allows all the manufacturers to gain trust over all the raw material and components provided by the supplier through digital signature with a private key. Recording an AI system"s decision-making process on a blockchain would increase transparency và gain public trust khổng lồ understand the robotic decisions (Salah et al., 2019). The integration of AI và blockchain technologies enables Decentralized Autonomous Agents (or DAOs) for automatic và fast validation of data/value/asset transfers among different stakeholders in a supply chain (Magazzeni et al., 2017). Applying AI techniques lớn blockchain-based business transactions can help refine the supply chain by automating the entire process. AI-enabled NLP scans through the supply chain documents like contracts, purchase orders, chat logs with customers or suppliers & significant others lớn identify commonalities that are used as feedback khổng lồ optimize SCM as part of continual improvement. Decentralized AI algorithms and applications can be developed by blockchain-AI integration in real world.

When AI platforms & technology are integrated with blockchain, can identify data patterns & predictive analysis which includes predicting future demand, capture data from the point of sale systems, old purchase information, predicting sales patterns, identifying potential issues in advance, optimizing routes to reach the destination & handling network traffic in the overall supply chain (Salah et al., 2019). It also helps in inventory management data and demand forecasting to lớn give the alert about the stock clearance. It can help notify the correct time lớn order the new stock by analyzing all the previous data processed through all the supply chain members on the blockchain server. Manufacturers reduce supply chain latency for components và parts used in their most heavily customized products using machine learning algorithms connected khổng lồ the AI, and blockchain play a significant role in the finance sector of the supply chain as all the transactions are processed & stored on the blockchain server by all the stakeholders involved in the supply supply chain (Pfohl & Gomm, 2009). AI helps to lớn manage all the operations and, through its data analysis algorithm, supports all the stakeholders khổng lồ keep track of expenses, the financial performance of the company existing in its supply chain. This integration analyses all the transactions according to the organization involved in the supply chain and helps notify about the requirements of funds và plans lớn raise funds for upcoming operational expenses. data-driven decisions help all the stakeholders và members of the supply lớn make correct decisions on a real-time basis (Zhao et al., 2016). Applying AI algorithms to lớn the blockchain-based transactions can help lớn reframe supply chain by automating the entire process and finding new revenue sources. AI agents & IOT devices helps supplier, manufacturer, logistics provider and distributor lớn improve the supply chain operations with predictive analysis that allows monitoring all the requirement of all the members involved in the supply chain. AI algorithm & blockchain integration reduces the work of supply chain managers of the organization và increases their efficiency. Planning strategies help in operational efficiency và resilience of AI applications & systems by taking the current input đầu vào state and executing different súc tích and rule-based algorithms to lớn reach predefined goals (Contreras-Cruz et al., 2017). This integration of blockchain & AI can also be used in the banking sector to lớn store all the data securely on blockchain server và data analysis, decisions of approving loans, managing cash flow and deciding customer"s withdraw limit depending on his previous data and transactions through AI.

In manufacturing supply chain, AI driven smart contracts can increase the effectiveness of regular smart contract through analysis. AI can analyze past contracts and suggest changes for future contracts. Predictive maintenance is the most important advantage of blockchain-AI integration. AI algorithm installed in a machine can reduce the maintenance uncertainties in the machine and improve the production unique efficiency due lớn standard outputs.

In Figure 4, in blockchain và AI integration, once the data are acquired through all supply chain members và data sources, all the data are properly processed & segmented through normalizing, encoding and transformation. The data that are not required is removed from the dataset. The segmented dataset is then trained as per the execution and report requirements. Then an AI algorithm is imposed on the dataset, and the data are then experimented, trained for a particular output. The output that is concluded is compared with the real-time data & reports & a necessary action is taken. Model recalibration takes place if the results are not as per required output.

6. Solutions for supply chain challenges

Solutions for supply chain challenges is shown in Table 3.

7. Discussion

Adopting all modern technology such as integration of blockchain with IOT, AI can increase the efficiency of operations, employees và organizations. It also brings many responsibilities and guidelines to lớn be followed by the organization and all the supply chain participants. Some of the guidelines that need to be followed by the members of supply chain in their organization are:

All the companies have different operational strategies with a quality way of tracking operations & executing the tasks. It is advised to research all the company processes first and then make an implementation plan lớn get the most benefit of giải pháp công nghệ in their supply chain operations.

Supply chain involves many members involved from the organization & outside the organization, so before adopting any technology, it is essential lớn make a proper flow of the giải pháp công nghệ usage, which involves and benefits all the members in the supply chain.

Adopting new modern giải pháp công nghệ in traditional supply chain is highly expensive, so a proper financial plan is preferred, and accurate unit economics should be ready before selecting any giải pháp công nghệ implementation in the organization. A company needs lớn plan for long term in terms of investment in technology và its returns.

All the technologies mentioned above that enhance the flexibility và agility of supply chain operations are very modern and challenging lớn learn by old employees. All companies have to plan training sessions & workshops for the employees, laborers, managers and stakeholders involved in the operations lớn make them efficient và smooth use of the technology.

The organizations, members involved in supply chain have lớn evaluate all the legal documents và legal compliance requirements to adopt new technology. There could be much legality in smart contracts, blockchain servers và IOT laws, as data are the base of all these technologies.

8. Conclusion, recommendations & implications

This paper presents the findings & research in the blockchain công nghệ that can be used in the supply chain khổng lồ increase efficiency & enhance the agility of the supply chain. The challenges faced by industries in the traditional supply chain discussed, và to overcome the difficulties, blockchain technology & its integration with other modern technologies are considered for implementation. Based on the literature surveys and survey from a few industry experts, challenges và their specific solution are identified in the chart in integration with the blockchain technology. Blockchain công nghệ can become one of the essential techniques in supply chain operations in the future. The architecture developed for blockchain công nghệ for the supply chain và its integration with the supply chain helps overcome some of the challenges analyzed in this research. Blockchain technology & its integration with smart contracts, IOT và AI, when used in the traditional supply chain, can not only solve the challenges but also bring new revenue sources và improve the business mã sản phẩm financially và operationally. This architecture can be roadmap for organizations planning to lớn implement blockchain technology in their supply chain & convert traditional supply chain into a fully digital supply chain. The architecture demonstrates the application of blockchain technology and its integration with modern technologies such as smart contracts, IOT, AI for all the operations involved in the supply chain. Adopting these technologies helps improve services and develop legal, finance, employee management and trust among stakeholders.

Supply chain operations face many challenges in spite of the availability of advanced technologies. The major challenges for the supply chain operations are time, consistency, transparency & trust among all stakeholders. Even if blockchain technology and its integration with AI & IOT are advanced technologies to solve barriers, organizations might not be ready to chia sẻ information on a platform for all parties to view và access. The government regulations vary in all the countries across the world, so international procurement standards are different for all the supply chain partners from different countries. Standard operating procedures are required to be developed in all the supply chain activities, processes & operations for successful implementation of these technologies in supply chain network. Small organizations and companies on a small scale with less revenue might face problems in adopting this công nghệ because of less technical knowledge & expense. The company"s objectives, resources and employees need lớn align all their activities with the digital supply chain revolution.

Figure 1

Blockchain technology for supply chain

Figure 2

Blockchain technology & smart contract integration for supply chain

Figure 3

Blockchain technology & IOT integration for supply chain

Figure 4

Blockchain technology và AI (artificial integration for supply chain

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